# UVa 1314 – Hidden Password

0

Solution Idea: Concatenate the input string with itself and find the suffix array. Answer will be the smallest string in suffix array which lie between index 0 to n-1 and which index is smaller.

```
#include &lt;bits/stdc++.h&gt;

#define pii              pair &lt;int,int&gt;
#define pll              pair &lt;long long,long long&gt;
#define sc               scanf
#define pf               printf
#define Pi               2*acos(0.0)
#define ms(a,b)          memset(a, b, sizeof(a))
#define pb(a)            push_back(a)
#define MP               make_pair
#define db               double
#define ll               long long
#define EPS              10E-10
#define ff               first
#define ss               second
#define sqr(x)           (x)*(x)
#define D(x)             cout&lt;&lt;#x &quot; = &quot;&lt;&lt;(x)&lt;&lt;endl
#define VI               vector &lt;int&gt;
#define DBG              pf(&quot;Hi\n&quot;)
#define MOD              1000000007
#define CIN              ios_base::sync_with_stdio(0); cin.tie(0); cout.tie(0)
#define SZ(a)            (int)a.size()
#define sf(a)            scanf(&quot;%d&quot;,&amp;a)
#define sfl(a)           scanf(&quot;%lld&quot;,&amp;a)
#define sff(a,b)         scanf(&quot;%d %d&quot;,&amp;a,&amp;b)
#define sffl(a,b)        scanf(&quot;%lld %lld&quot;,&amp;a,&amp;b)
#define sfff(a,b,c)      scanf(&quot;%d %d %d&quot;,&amp;a,&amp;b,&amp;c)
#define sfffl(a,b,c)     scanf(&quot;%lld %lld %lld&quot;,&amp;a,&amp;b,&amp;c)
#define stlloop(v)       for(__typeof(v.begin()) it=v.begin();it!=v.end();it++)
#define loop(i,n)        for(int i=0;i&lt;n;i++)
#define loop1(i,n)       for(int i=1;i&lt;=n;i++)
#define REP(i,a,b)       for(int i=a;i&lt;b;i++)
#define RREP(i,a,b)      for(int i=a;i&gt;=b;i--)
#define TEST_CASE(t)     for(int z=1;z&lt;=t;z++)
#define PRINT_CASE       printf(&quot;Case %d: &quot;,z)
#define LINE_PRINT_CASE  printf(&quot;Case %d:\n&quot;,z)
#define CASE_PRINT       cout&lt;&lt;&quot;Case &quot;&lt;&lt;z&lt;&lt;&quot;: &quot;
#define all(a)           a.begin(),a.end()
#define intlim           2147483648
#define infinity         (1&lt;&lt;28)
#define ull              unsigned long long
#define gcd(a, b)        __gcd(a, b)
#define lcm(a, b)        ((a)*((b)/gcd(a,b)))

using namespace std;

/*----------------------Graph Moves----------------*/
//const int fx[]={+1,-1,+0,+0};
//const int fy[]={+0,+0,+1,-1};
//const int fx[]={+0,+0,+1,-1,-1,+1,-1,+1};   // Kings Move
//const int fy[]={-1,+1,+0,+0,+1,+1,-1,-1};  // Kings Move
//const int fx[]={-2, -2, -1, -1,  1,  1,  2,  2};  // Knights Move
//const int fy[]={-1,  1, -2,  2, -2,  2, -1,  1}; // Knights Move
/*------------------------------------------------*/

//int Set(int N,int pos){return N=N | (1&lt;&lt;pos);}
//int reset(int N,int pos){return N= N &amp; ~(1&lt;&lt;pos);}
//bool check(int N,int pos){return (bool)(N &amp; (1&lt;&lt;pos));}
/*------------------------------------------------*/

char ara[100005];

struct data
{
pii rank;
int pos;
};

bool cmp(data a, data b)
{
return a.rank&lt;b.rank;
}

int suffix_ara[200005];

int position[200005];

int main()
{

//    freopen(&quot;in.txt&quot;,&quot;r&quot;,stdin);
//	  freopen(&quot;out.txt&quot;,&quot;w&quot;,stdout);

int t;
sf(t);
TEST_CASE(t)
{
int n;
sf(n);
getchar();
gets(ara);
string str=ara;
str+=str;
n*=2;
for(int i=0;i&lt;n;i++)
{
position[i]=str[i]-'a';
}

for(int steep=1;steep&lt;n;steep*=2)
{
vector&lt;data&gt;v(n);
for(int i=0;i&lt;n;i++)
{
int a=position[i];
int b;
if(i+steep&gt;=n)
b=100000000;
else
b=position[i+steep];
v[i].rank=pii(a,b);
v[i].pos=i;
}

sort(all(v),cmp);

position[v[0].pos]=0;
suffix_ara[0]=v[0].pos;

for(int i=1;i&lt;n;i++)
{
suffix_ara[i]=v[i].pos;
if(v[i].rank==v[i-1].rank)
position[v[i].pos]=position[v[i-1].pos];
else
position[v[i].pos]=i;
}
}

for(int i=0;i&lt;n;i++)
{
if(suffix_ara[i]&lt;n/2)
{
pf(&quot;%d\n&quot;,suffix_ara[i]);
//                pf(&quot;%s\n&quot;,str.substr(suffix_ara[i]).c_str());
break;
}
}
}

return 0;
}

```

# SPOJ: AMR10E – Stocks Prediction

0

```
#include &lt;bits/stdc++.h&gt;

#define pii              pair &lt;int,int&gt;
#define pll              pair &lt;long long,long long&gt;
#define sc               scanf
#define pf               printf
#define Pi               2*acos(0.0)
#define ms(a,b)          memset(a, b, sizeof(a))
#define pb(a)            push_back(a)
#define MP               make_pair
#define db               double
#define ll               long long
#define EPS              10E-10
#define ff               first
#define ss               second
#define sqr(x)           (x)*(x)
#define D(x)             cout&lt;&lt;#x &quot; = &quot;&lt;&lt;(x)&lt;&lt;endl
#define VI               vector &lt;int&gt;
#define DBG              pf(&quot;Hi\n&quot;)
//#define MOD              1000000007
#define CIN              ios_base::sync_with_stdio(0); cin.tie(0); cout.tie(0)
#define SZ(a)            (int)a.size()
#define sf(a)            scanf(&quot;%d&quot;,&amp;a)
#define sfl(a)           scanf(&quot;%lld&quot;,&amp;a)
#define sff(a,b)         scanf(&quot;%d %d&quot;,&amp;a,&amp;b)
#define sffl(a,b)        scanf(&quot;%lld %lld&quot;,&amp;a,&amp;b)
#define sfff(a,b,c)      scanf(&quot;%d %d %d&quot;,&amp;a,&amp;b,&amp;c)
#define sfffl(a,b,c)     scanf(&quot;%lld %lld %lld&quot;,&amp;a,&amp;b,&amp;c)
#define stlloop(v)       for(__typeof(v.begin()) it=v.begin();it!=v.end();it++)
#define loop(i,n)        for(int i=0;i&lt;n;i++)
#define loop1(i,n)       for(int i=1;i&lt;=n;i++)
#define REP(i,a,b)       for(int i=a;i&lt;b;i++)
#define RREP(i,a,b)      for(int i=a;i&gt;=b;i--)
#define TEST_CASE(t)     for(int z=1;z&lt;=t;z++)
#define PRINT_CASE       printf(&quot;Case %d: &quot;,z)
#define LINE_PRINT_CASE  printf(&quot;Case %d:\n&quot;,z)
#define CASE_PRINT       cout&lt;&lt;&quot;Case &quot;&lt;&lt;z&lt;&lt;&quot;: &quot;
#define all(a)           a.begin(),a.end()
#define intlim           2147483648
#define infinity         (1&lt;&lt;28)
#define ull              unsigned long long
#define gcd(a, b)        __gcd(a, b)
#define lcm(a, b)        ((a)*((b)/gcd(a,b)))

using namespace std;

/*----------------------Graph Moves----------------*/
//const int fx[]={+1,-1,+0,+0};
//const int fy[]={+0,+0,+1,-1};
//const int fx[]={+0,+0,+1,-1,-1,+1,-1,+1};   // Kings Move
//const int fy[]={-1,+1,+0,+0,+1,+1,-1,-1};  // Kings Move
//const int fx[]={-2, -2, -1, -1,  1,  1,  2,  2};  // Knights Move
//const int fy[]={-1,  1, -2,  2, -2,  2, -1,  1}; // Knights Move
/*------------------------------------------------*/

//int Set(int N,int pos){return N=N | (1&lt;&lt;pos);}
//int reset(int N,int pos){return N= N &amp; ~(1&lt;&lt;pos);}
//bool check(int N,int pos){return (bool)(N &amp; (1&lt;&lt;pos));}
/*------------------------------------------------*/

/*----------------------Matrix-----------------------*/

// int MOD=
ll MOD= 1000000007;

struct matrix
{
ll mat[11][11];
int row,col;

matrix()
{
row=col=0;
memset(mat,0,sizeof mat);
}
matrix(int a, int b)
{
row=a,col=b;
memset(mat,0,sizeof mat);
}

matrix operator*(const matrix &amp;p) const
{
assert(col == p.row);
matrix temp;
temp.row = row;
temp.col = p.col;
for (int i = 0; i &lt; temp.row; i++)
{
for (int j = 0; j &lt; temp.col; j++)
{
ll sum = 0;
for (int k = 0; k &lt;col;  k++)
{
sum += ((mat[i][k]%MOD) * (p.mat[k][j]%MOD))%MOD;
sum%=MOD;
}
temp.mat[i][j] = sum;
}
}
return temp;
}
matrix operator+ (const matrix &amp;p) const
{
assert(row==p.row &amp;&amp; col==p.col);
matrix temp;
temp.row=row;
temp.col=col;
for(int i=0; i&lt;temp.row; i++)
{
for(int j=0; j&lt;temp.col; j++)
temp.mat[i][j]=((mat[i][j]%MOD)+(p.mat[i][j]%MOD))%MOD;;
}
return temp;
}

matrix identity()
{
matrix temp;
temp.row=row;
temp.col=col;
for(int i=0; i&lt;row; i++)
temp.mat[i][i]=1;
return temp;
}

matrix pow(ll pow)
{
matrix temp=(*this);
matrix ret=(*this).identity();
while(pow)
{
if(pow % 2==1)
ret=ret*temp;
temp=temp*temp;
pow/=2;
}
return ret;
}

void show()
{
printf(&quot;-----------------------------\n&quot;);
for(int i=0; i&lt;row; i++)
{
for(int j=0; j&lt;col; j++)
printf(&quot;%lld &quot;,mat[i][j]);
printf(&quot;\n&quot;);
}
printf(&quot;-----------------------------\n&quot;);
}

};

/*--------------------------Matrix End---------------------*/

matrix identity;

matrix func(matrix m, ll p)
{
//    if(p==0) return identity;
if(p==1) return identity;
//
//    matrix ret=func(m,p/2);
//
//    matrix temp=m.pow(p/2);

if(p%2==0)
{
return func(m,p/2)*(identity+m.pow(p/2));
}
else
{
return func(m,p-1)+m.pow(p-1);
}
}

ll s[15],ara[15];

int main()
{

//    freopen(&quot;in.txt&quot;,&quot;r&quot;,stdin);
//	  freopen(&quot;out.txt&quot;,&quot;w&quot;,stdout);

int t;
sf(t);
TEST_CASE(t)
{
ll n,r,k;

sfffl(n,r,k);

matrix base(r,1);

ms(s,0);
ms(ara,0);

for(int i=1; i&lt;=r; i++)
sfl(s[i]);

matrix a(r,r);

for(int i=0; i&lt;r; i++)
{
sfl(a.mat[0][i]);
ara[i+1]=a.mat[0][i];
if(i+1!=r)
a.mat[i+1][i]=1;
}

//        base.show();

//        a.show();

a=a.pow(k);

//        a.show();

//        base.show();

identity=a.identity();

a=func(a,n);

//        a.show();

ll ans=0;

if(k&gt;r)
{
for(int i=r+1; i&lt;=k; i++)
{
for(int j=1; j&lt;=r; j++)
{
s[i]+=s[i-j]*ara[j];
s[i]%=MOD;
}
}

for(int i=0; i&lt;r; i++)
{
ans=(ans+(s[k-i]*a.mat[0][i])%MOD);
ans%=MOD;

}

}
else
{
for(int i=0; i&lt;r; i++)
{
ans=(ans+(a.mat[r-k][r-i-1]*s[i+1])%MOD);
ans%=MOD;
}

}
pf(&quot;%lld\n&quot;,ans);

}

return 0;
}

```

# ACM-ICPC Live Archive : 4108 – SKYLINE

0

```
#include &lt;bits/stdc++.h&gt;

#define pii              pair &lt;int,int&gt;
#define pll              pair &lt;long long,long long&gt;
#define sc               scanf
#define pf               printf
#define Pi               2*acos(0.0)
#define ms(a,b)          memset(a, b, sizeof(a))
#define pb(a)            push_back(a)
#define MP               make_pair
#define db               double
#define ll               long long
#define EPS              10E-10
#define ff               first
#define ss               second
#define sqr(x)           (x)*(x)
#define D(x)             cout&lt;&lt;#x &quot; = &quot;&lt;&lt;(x)&lt;&lt;endl
#define VI               vector &lt;int&gt;
#define DBG              pf(&quot;Hi\n&quot;)
#define MOD              1000000007
#define CIN              ios_base::sync_with_stdio(0); cin.tie(0)
#define SZ(a)            (int)a.size()
#define sf(a)            scanf(&quot;%d&quot;,&amp;a)
#define sfl(a)           scanf(&quot;%lld&quot;,&amp;a)
#define sff(a,b)         scanf(&quot;%d %d&quot;,&amp;a,&amp;b)
#define sffl(a,b)        scanf(&quot;%lld %lld&quot;,&amp;a,&amp;b)
#define sfff(a,b,c)      scanf(&quot;%d %d %d&quot;,&amp;a,&amp;b,&amp;c)
#define sfffl(a,b,c)     scanf(&quot;%lld %lld %lld&quot;,&amp;a,&amp;b,&amp;c)
#define stlloop(v)       for(__typeof(v.begin()) it=v.begin();it!=v.end();it++)
#define loop(i,n)        for(int i=0;i&lt;n;i++)
#define loop1(i,n)       for(int i=1;i&lt;=n;i++)
#define REP(i,a,b)       for(int i=a;i&lt;b;i++)
#define RREP(i,a,b)      for(int i=a;i&gt;=b;i--)
#define TEST_CASE(t)     for(int z=1;z&lt;=t;z++)
#define PRINT_CASE       printf(&quot;Case %d: &quot;,z)
#define CASE_PRINT       cout&lt;&lt;&quot;Case &quot;&lt;&lt;z&lt;&lt;&quot;: &quot;
#define all(a)           a.begin(),a.end()
#define intlim           2147483648
#define infinity         (1&lt;&lt;28)
#define ull              unsigned long long
#define gcd(a, b)        __gcd(a, b)
#define lcm(a, b)        ((a)*((b)/gcd(a,b)))

using namespace std;

/*----------------------Graph Moves----------------*/
//const int fx[]={+1,-1,+0,+0};
//const int fy[]={+0,+0,+1,-1};
//const int fx[]={+0,+0,+1,-1,-1,+1,-1,+1};   // Kings Move
//const int fy[]={-1,+1,+0,+0,+1,+1,-1,-1};  // Kings Move
//const int fx[]={-2, -2, -1, -1,  1,  1,  2,  2};  // Knights Move
//const int fy[]={-1,  1, -2,  2, -2,  2, -1,  1}; // Knights Move
/*------------------------------------------------*/

//int Set(int N,int pos){return N=N | (1&lt;&lt;pos);}
//int reset(int N,int pos){return N= N &amp; ~(1&lt;&lt;pos);}
//bool check(int N,int pos){return (bool)(N &amp; (1&lt;&lt;pos));}
/*------------------------------------------------*/

#define mx 100005

struct data
{
ll maxi, mini, prop;

};

struct inp
{
int l, r, v;
inp(int a, int b, int c)
{
l=a,r=b,v=c;
}
};

data tree[mx*4];

int ls,rs,h;

void push_down(int n)
{
int val=tree[n].prop;
if(tree[n].prop!=0)
{
tree[n*2].prop=val;
tree[n*2+1].prop=val;
tree[n*2].maxi=val;
tree[n*2+1].maxi=val;
tree[n*2].mini=val;
tree[n*2+1].mini=val;
tree[n].prop=0;
}
}

void push_up(int n)
{
tree[n].maxi=max(tree[n*2].maxi,tree[n*2+1].maxi);
tree[n].mini=min(tree[n*2].mini,tree[n*2+1].mini);
}

int anss=0;

void update(int n, int b, int e, int i, int j)
{
if(b&gt;j || e&lt;i) return;
if(b&gt;=i &amp;&amp; e&lt;=j)
{
if(tree[n].maxi&lt;h)
{
tree[n].maxi=h;
tree[n].prop=h;
tree[n].mini=h;
return;
}
else if(tree[n].mini&gt;h)
{
anss+=(e-b+1);
return;
}
}
if(b==e) return;
push_down(n);
int l=n*2;
int r=l+1;
int mid=(b+e)/2;
update(l,b,mid,i,j);
update(r,mid+1,e,i,j);
push_up(n);
}

int main()
{

///freopen(&quot;in.txt&quot;,&quot;r&quot;,stdin);
///freopen(&quot;out.txt&quot;,&quot;w&quot;,stdout);

int t;
int n;
sf(t);
{
TEST_CASE(t)
{
sf(n);
ll ans=0;

ms(tree,0);

vector&lt;inp&gt;vv;
loop(i,n)
{

sfff(ls,rs,h);
vv.pb(inp(ls,rs,h));
}

for(int i=0; i&lt;n; i++)
{
ls=vv[i].l;
rs=vv[i].r;
h=vv[i].v;
anss=0;
ans+=(rs-ls-anss);

}
pf(&quot;%lld\n&quot;,ans);
}
}

sf(t);

return 0;
}

```

# ACM-ICPC Live Archive : 4109 – USHER

0

```
/*
If opportunity doesn't knock, build a door.

+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|S|.|S|.|R|.|A|.|S|.|A|.|M|.|K|
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

Success is how high you bounce when you hit bottom.
*/

#include &lt;bits/stdc++.h&gt;

#define pii              pair &lt;int,int&gt;
#define pll              pair &lt;long long,long long&gt;
#define sc               scanf
#define pf               printf
#define Pi               2*acos(0.0)
#define ms(a,b)          memset(a, b, sizeof(a))
#define pb(a)            push_back(a)
#define MP               make_pair
#define db               double
#define ll               long long
#define EPS              10E-10
#define ff               first
#define ss               second
#define sqr(x)           (x)*(x)
#define D(x)             cout&lt;&lt;#x &quot; = &quot;&lt;&lt;(x)&lt;&lt;endl
#define VI               vector &lt;int&gt;
#define DBG              pf(&quot;Hi\n&quot;)
#define MOD              10000019
#define CIN              ios_base::sync_with_stdio(0); cin.tie(0)
#define SZ(a)            (int)a.size()
#define sf(a)            scanf(&quot;%d&quot;,&amp;a)
#define sfl(a)           scanf(&quot;%lld&quot;,&amp;a)
#define sff(a,b)         scanf(&quot;%d %d&quot;,&amp;a,&amp;b)
#define sffl(a,b)        scanf(&quot;%lld %lld&quot;,&amp;a,&amp;b)
#define sfff(a,b,c)      scanf(&quot;%d %d %d&quot;,&amp;a,&amp;b,&amp;c)
#define sfffl(a,b,c)     scanf(&quot;%lld %lld %lld&quot;,&amp;a,&amp;b,&amp;c)
#define stlloop(v)       for(__typeof(v.begin()) it=v.begin();it!=v.end();it++)
#define loop(i,n)        for(int i=0;i&lt;n;i++)
#define REP(i,a,b)       for(int i=a;i&lt;b;i++)
#define RREP(i,a,b)      for(int i=a;i&gt;=b;i--)
#define TEST_CASE(t)     for(int z=1;z&lt;=t;z++)
#define PRINT_CASE       printf(&quot;Case %d: &quot;,z)
#define CASE_PRINT       cout&lt;&lt;&quot;Case &quot;&lt;&lt;z&lt;&lt;&quot;: &quot;
#define all(a)           a.begin(),a.end()
#define intlim           2147483648
#define infinity         (1&lt;&lt;28)
#define ull              unsigned long long
#define gcd(a, b)        __gcd(a, b)
#define lcm(a, b)        ((a)*((b)/gcd(a,b)))

using namespace std;

/*----------------------Graph Moves----------------*/
//const int fx[]={+1,-1,+0,+0};
//const int fy[]={+0,+0,+1,-1};
//const int fx[]={+0,+0,+1,-1,-1,+1,-1,+1};   // Kings Move
//const int fy[]={-1,+1,+0,+0,+1,+1,-1,-1};  // Kings Move
//const int fx[]={-2, -2, -1, -1,  1,  1,  2,  2};  // Knights Move
//const int fy[]={-1,  1, -2,  2, -2,  2, -1,  1}; // Knights Move
/*------------------------------------------------*/

//int Set(int N,int pos){return N=N | (1&lt;&lt;pos);}
//int reset(int N,int pos){return N= N &amp; ~(1&lt;&lt;pos);}
//bool check(int N,int pos){return (bool)(N &amp; (1&lt;&lt;pos));}
/*------------------------------------------------*/

vector&lt;int&gt;graph[505],cost[505];
int cap,p,usernum;

int aa=INT_MAX;

int bfs(int src, int dst)
{
int dis[505];
for(int i=0;i&lt;505;i++) dis[i]=infinity;
dis[src]=0;
queue&lt;int&gt;Q;
Q.push(src);
while(!Q.empty())
{
int u=Q.front();
Q.pop();
for(int i=0;i&lt;SZ(graph[u]);i++)
{
int v=graph[u][i];
if(dis[u]+cost[u][i]&lt;dis[v])
{
dis[v]=dis[u]+cost[u][i];
Q.push(v);
}
}
}
return dis[dst];
}

int main()
{

//     freopen(&quot;in.txt&quot;,&quot;r&quot;,stdin);
//    freopen(&quot;out.txt&quot;,&quot;w&quot;,stdout);

int t;
while(sf(t)==1 &amp;&amp; t)
{
TEST_CASE(t)
{
//            D(z);
for(int i=0;i&lt;505;i++)
{
graph[i].clear();
cost[i].clear();
}
sff(cap,p);
vector&lt;int&gt;user;
sf(usernum);
loop(i,usernum)
{
int a;
sf(a);
user.pb(a);
}

for(int i=1;i&lt;=p;i++)
{
int xx;
sf(xx);
for(int j=1;j&lt;=xx;j++)
{
int a,b;
sff(a,b);
graph[i].pb(b);
cost[i].pb(a);
}
}

aa=INT_MAX;

for(int i=0;i&lt;SZ(user);i++)
{
aa=min(aa,bfs(user[i],0));
}

if(aa==0)
{
pf(&quot;0\n&quot;);
continue;
}

{
int sum=0;
int ans=0;
sum=0;
while(sum&lt;cap)
{
sum+=(aa);
if(sum&gt;=cap) break;
sum--;
ans++;
}
pf(&quot;%d\n&quot;,ans);
}

}
}
return 0;
}

```